knoalsterschrievers
Website van Harry Töben
Over t Knoalster Grunnegs


Wat hier in t Nederlands staait, staait ook in mien essay "Alles over t Knoalster Grunnegs", mor den in t Grunnegs.



Het Gronings

Een streektaal is vooral van waarde als drager van een bepaalde cultuur.  Het is daarom belangrijk om in stand te worden gehouden. Het Gronings is een streektaal die onderdeel is van het Nedersaksisch. De overige streektalen die tot de Nedersaksische streektalen worden gerekend zijn: het Drents, het Twents, het Stellingwerfs, het Veluws, het Sallands, het Achterhoeks, het IJssellands en het Urks. Over de oostgrens komen vele varianten van het Nedersaksisch voor waaronder: het Oostfries, Eemslands, Munsterlands en Westfaals. Het Gronings kent een aantal varianten, afhankelijk van waar men zich in de provincie bevindt; de stad Groningen, Gorecht, Westerkwartier, Hogeland, Fivelingo, Oldambt, Westerwolde, Veenkoloniën, Kanaalstreek. 

 

Het Knoalster Grunnegs als spreektaal
De Kanaalstreek is het jongste stukje Groningen. Het is ontstaan door de ontginning van het veen. Men kwam van heinde en verre om er als kanalengraver of veenarbeider te werken. Nadat het veen was verdwenen, begon men de grond te bewerken en kwamen er  boerderijen. Er kwamen handelaren en er vestigden zich ambachtslieden. Veel kwamen uit Duitsland. De verscheidenheid van de bevolking was groot en heeft bijgedragen aan de ontwikkeling van een eigen spreektaal die afwijkt van het Veenkoloniaals. De taal die er gesproken wordt ontwikkelde zich vanuit het Veenkoloniaals, Westerwolds, Oldambts en Drents. Waar in andere delen van Groningen het Fries van invloed is geweest, daar is in de Kanaalstreek geen sprake van. Wel worden er veel woorden gebruikt die vanuit het Nederlands komen. Je kunt spreken van het naar het Gronings vertaalde Nederlands. In de Kanaalstreek worden ook veel Nederlandse woorden gebruikt. Aan het vertalen van buitenlandse woorden naar de eigen streektaal, is in de Kanaalstreek minder behoefte dan elders in Groningen. De gesproken taal in de Kanaalstreek heeft, vooral onder invloed van het Drents, veel klankverschillen met de overige streektalen in Groningen. De taal van de Kanaalstreek begint ongeveer in de omgeving van Bareveld en eindigt in Ter Apel. Het wordt gesproken in de Drentse Monden en in delen van het Oldambt en Westerwolde. 

Het Knoalster Grunneges als schrijftaal
Uitgangspunten van een schrijftaal zijn: leesbaarheid en leerbaarheid. Leesbaarheid wil zeggen dat een schrijftaal een spreektaal moet volgen. Leerbaarheid betekend dat een schrijftaal eenvoudig en consequent moet zijn.  Een schrijver kan zich het beste uitdrukken in de woorden zoals hij die spreekt. Woorden, die dezelfde betekenis hebben, kunnen in klanken erg verschillen. Prof. dr. Siemon Reker, hoogleraar Gronings aan de RUG schreef: "Iemand die de klankverschillen niet hoort, weet wellicht niet waar een ander zich druk om kan maken; voor een ander kan het bijkans een halszaak zijn om te spellen zoals hij spreekt en dus zó gelezen wil worden." Om een juiste schriftelijke weergave te krijgen van de gesproken taal is een eigen spelling van woorden nodig. Bij het Knoalsters wordt er echter terdege rekening gehouden met de algemene spelling- en grammaticaregels zoals deze vanaf 1984 door prof. dr. Siemon Reker zijn vastgesteld. Een ander belangrijke reden om in het Knoalsters te schrijven is, dat het lezen in de streektaal die je zelf spreekt altijd het gemakkelijkst is.

 

Spellingregels van het Knoalsters
Meer dan anders in de provincie Groningen, is er in de Kanaalstreek sprake van een monoftongering van de tweeklank. De tweeklank wordt als het ware verkort. Daar, waar dit zich in de spreektaal aandient, wordt het in de schrijftaal gevolgd.Enige voorbeelden:

Nederlands woord moeten; Gronings mouten; Knoalsters motten
                                 maken                     moaken                     mokken
                                 proberen                pebaaiern                  pebaren
                                 twee                        twij                             twèje
                                 nieuws                     nijs                              nès

Bij Nederlands woorden die op elijk eindigen mag in het Gronings de ij worden weggelaten. Woorden als: vriendelijk, onmiddelijk, worden in het Gronings vrundelk en votdoadelk. In het Knoalsters worden de woorden geschreven zoals ze worden uitgesproken namelijk: vrundlek, votdoadlek.

Bij toevoeging van te of de aan woorden in de regelmatige verleden tijd wordt in de Kanaalstreek gekozen voor de waar men elders in de provincie voor te kiest. Voorbeelden:  rookte=rookde, fietst=fietsde, bakte=bakde. Maar ook witte=widde.

Het lidwoord de wordt in de Kanaalstreek meer gebruikt als elders. Het wordt wel dicht bij het woord uitgesproken dat er op volgt. Soms hoor je alleen een lichte keelklank, maar je hoort het, en dan wordt het ook geschreven.

In de Kanaalstreek is het bijna vanzelfsprekend dat, als iemand niet go gauw een gaaf Gronings woord voorhanden heeft, er gewoon een Nederlands woord wordt gebruikt. Men gaat niet naar de winkel om een spaigelploatje te kopen; men koop een cd.

Door deze regels op papier te zetten, is het voor mensen die in het Knoalsters willen schrijven eenvoudiger geworden. Vaak kunnen ze spellen zoals ze spreken. Het mag echter geen fonetisch schrift worden. Dan voldoet het niet meer aan de regel dat een schrijftaal leerbaar moet zijn.

 

 

 Meer over t Knoalster Grunnegs is te lezen in mien essay: Alles over t Knoalster Grunnegs.

 t Is te koop in de boekwinkels in de Knoalstreek of bie mie via de mail: hatoben@online.nl.

t Kost 3,95 euro exl. verzendkosten.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 











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